Mexiko, Brasilien, Argentinien: Aspekte eines Vergleichs*. Sucht man - vom Standort der Gegenwart aus - die drei hier behandel- ten Revolutionen unter dem. Vor allem im Bundesstaat Rio de Janeiro spitzt sich die Lage zu. Am Freitag mussten über CovidErkrankte von Kliniken abgewiesen. Das Virus breitet sich in Russland, Brasilien, Mexiko und Indien immer weiter aus. Die Entwicklung verläuft anders als in Europa oder den USA.
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Mexico Brasilien Brasil-México, en imágenes VideoBRAZIL v MEXICO (0:0) - 2014 FIFA World Cup™
Brazil continued their perfect start to the qualifiers for the World Cup with a win over Uruguay while rivals Argentina stayed in touch with an easy win in Peru Uruguay's Luis Suarez has tested positive for Covid and will miss the World Cup qualifying match against Brazil, Uruguay's football association announced Monday Brazil will put their perfect start to the South American World Cup qualifying campaign on the line on Tuesday when they travel to Uruguay without Neymar and with worries over their form Brazil must confront a growing injury list that includes star forward Neymar as they resume World Cup qualifying this week, while Argentina are out to extend their perfect start at home to neighbours Paraguay Neymar scored a hat-trick to become the second highest scorer in Brazil's history as the Copa America champions won away to man Peru in a World Cup qualifier on Tuesday Report an error Print.
Between and , Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico.
Tensions increased until, on the night of 30 June — during a struggle known as " La Noche Triste " — the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies.
For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans. The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later.
By that time, the city had again become a city-state , having power that extended far beyond its borders.
Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves.
The city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain.
The existing central place of the Aztecs was effectively and permanently transformed to the ceremonial center and seat of power during the colonial period, and remains to this day in modern Mexico, the central place of the nation.
The rebuilding of the city after the siege of Tenochtitlan was accomplished by the abundant indigenous labor in the surrounding area.
Franciscan friar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia , one of the Twelve Apostles of Mexico who arrived in New Spain in , described the rebuilding of the city as one of the afflictions or plagues of the early period:.
The seventh plague was the construction of the great City of Mexico, which, during the early years used more people than in the construction of Jerusalem.
The crowds of laborers were so numerous that one could hardly move in the streets and causeways, although they are very wide. Many died from being crushed by beams, or falling from high places, or in tearing down old buildings for new ones.
Preconquest Tenochtitlan was built in the center of the inland lake system, with the city reachable by canoe and by wide causeways to the mainland.
The causeways were rebuilt under Spanish rule with indigenous labor. Colonial Spanish cities were constructed on a grid pattern, if no geographical obstacle prevented it.
The Spanish lived in the area closest to the main square in what was known as the traza , in orderly, well laid-out streets.
Indian residences were outside that exclusive zone and houses were haphazardly located. It was also the site of two major riots in the seventeenth century, one in , the other in The city grew as the population did, coming up against the lake's waters.
As the depth of the lake water fluctuated, Mexico City was subject to periodic flooding. A major labor draft, the desagüe , compelled thousands of Indians over the colonial period to work on infrastructure to prevent flooding.
Floods were not only an inconvenience but also a health hazard, since during flood periods human waste polluted the city's streets.
By draining the area, the mosquito population dropped as did the frequency of the diseases they spread.
However, draining the wetlands also changed the habitat for fish and birds and the areas accessible for Indian cultivation close to the capital.
The 16th century saw a proliferation of churches, many of which can still be seen today in the historic center. Although the Spanish crown tried to completely regulate all commerce in the city, it had only partial success.
The concept of nobility flourished in New Spain in a way not seen in other parts of the Americas. Spaniards encountered a society in which the concept of nobility mirrored that of their own.
Spaniards respected the indigenous order of nobility and added to it. In the ensuing centuries, possession of a noble title in Mexico did not mean one exercised great political power, for one's power was limited even if the accumulation of wealth was not.
Most of these families proved their worth by making fortunes in New Spain outside of the city itself, then spending the revenues in the capital, building churches, supporting charities and building extravagant palatial homes.
The craze to build the most opulent residence possible reached its height in the last half of the 18th century.
Many of these palaces can still be seen today, leading to Mexico City's nickname of "The city of palaces" given by Alexander Von Humboldt.
The Battle of Guanajuato, the first major engagement of the insurgency, occurred four days later. After a decade of war, Mexico's independence from Spain was effectively declared in the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire on 27 September Unrest followed for the next several decades, as different factions fought for control of Mexico.
The Mexican Federal District was established by the new government and by the signing of their new constitution, where the concept of a federal district was adapted from the United States Constitution.
Texcoco de Mora and then Toluca became the capital of the State of Mexico. During the 19th century, Mexico City was the center stage of all the political disputes of the country.
It was also the objective of one of the two French invasions to Mexico — , and occupied for a year by American troops in the framework of the Mexican—American War — The Battle for Mexico City was the series of engagements from 8 to 15 September , in the general vicinity of Mexico City during the U.
Mexican War. Included are major actions at the battles of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec , culminating with the fall of Mexico City.
The U. Army under Winfield Scott scored a major success that ended the war. Army's 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Divisions. During this battle, on 13 September, the 4th Division, under John A.
Quitman , spearheaded the attack against Chapultepec and carried the castle. Future Confederate generals George E. Pickett and James Longstreet participated in the attack.
The Mexican forces fell back from Chapultepec and retreated within the city. The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed in what is now the far north of the city.
During this time the city developed a modern infrastructure, such as roads, schools, transportation systems and communication systems. However the regime concentrated resources and wealth into the city while the rest of the country languished in poverty.
He and his government came to the conclusion that they would use Paris as a model, while still containing remnants of Amerindian and Hispanic elements.
This style of Mexican-French fusion architecture became colloquially known as Porfirian Architecture. Porfirian architecture became very influenced by Paris' Haussmannization.
During this era of Porfirian rule, the city underwent an extensive modernization. Many Spanish Colonial style buildings were destroyed, replaced by new much larger Porfirian institutions and many outlying rural zones were transformed into urban or industrialized districts with most having electrical, gas and sewage utilities by While the initial focus was on developing modern hospitals, schools, factories and massive public works, perhaps the most long-lasting effects of the Porfirian modernization were creation of the Colonia Roma area and the development of Reforma Avenue.
Many of Mexico City's major attractions and landmarks were built during this era in this style. One of the best examples of this is the Monument to the Mexican Revolution.
Originally the monument was to be the main dome of Diaz's new senate hall, but when the revolution erupted only the dome of the senate hall and its supporting pillars were completed, this was subsequently seen as a symbol by many Mexicans that the Porfirian era was over once and for all and as such, it was turned into a monument to victory over Diaz.
The capital escaped the worst of the violence of the ten-year conflict of the Mexican Revolution. Madero staged a successful coup. The center of the city was subjected to artillery attacks from the army stronghold of the ciudadela or citadel, with significant civilian casualties and the undermining of confidence in the Madero government.
Victoriano Huerta , chief general of the Federal Army , saw a chance to take power, forcing Madero and Pino Suarez to sign resignations.
The two were murdered later while on their way to Lecumberri prison. Huerta had abandoned the capital and the conquering armies marched in.
Venustiano Carranza 's Constitutionalist faction ultimately prevailed in the revolutionary civil war and Carranza took up residence in the presidential palace.
The history of the rest of the 20th century to the present focuses on the phenomenal growth of the city and its environmental and political consequences.
In , the population of Mexico City was about , The rapid development of Mexico City as a center for modernist architecture was most fully manifested in the mids construction of the Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City , the main campus of the National Autonomous University of Mexico.
The Olympic Games brought about the construction of large sporting facilities. In half of all the industrial jobs in Mexico were located in Mexico City.
Under relentless growth, the Mexico City government could barely keep up with services. Villagers from the countryside who continued to pour into the city to escape poverty only compounded the city's problems.
With no housing available, they took over lands surrounding the city, creating huge shantytowns that extended for many miles.
The autocratic government that ruled Mexico City since the Revolution was tolerated, mostly because of the continued economic expansion since World War II.
This was the case even though this government could not handle the population and pollution problems adequately. Nevertheless, discontent and protests began in the s leading to the massacre of an unknown number of protesting students in Tlatelolco.
Three years later, a demonstration in the Maestros avenue, organized by former members of the student movement, was violently repressed by a paramilitary group called "Los Halcones", composed of gang members and teenagers from many sports clubs who received training in the U.
Although this earthquake was not as deadly or destructive as many similar events in Asia and other parts of Latin America,  it proved to be a disaster politically for the one-party government.
The government was paralyzed by its own bureaucracy and corruption, forcing ordinary citizens to create and direct their own rescue efforts and to reconstruct much of the housing that was lost as well.
However, the last straw may have been the controversial elections of That year, the presidency was set between the P. He resigned in to run for the presidency.
This valley is located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt in the high plateaus of south-central Mexico. Drainage was engineered through the use of canals and tunnels starting in the 17th century.
Mexico City primarily rests on what was Lake Texcoco. Although none of the lake waters remain, the city rests on the lake bed's heavily saturated clay.
This soft base is collapsing due to the over-extraction of groundwater, called groundwater-related subsidence.
Since the beginning of the 20th century the city has sunk as much as nine meters 30 feet in some areas. This sinking is causing problems with runoff and wastewater management, leading to flooding problems, especially during the summer.
Mexico City has a subtropical highland climate Köppen climate classification Cwb , due to its tropical location but high elevation.
The lower region of the valley receives less rainfall than the upper regions of the south; the lower boroughs of Iztapalapa , Iztacalco , Venustiano Carranza and the east portion of Gustavo A.
Madero are usually drier and warmer than the upper southern boroughs of Tlalpan and Milpa Alta , a mountainous region of pine and oak trees known as the range of Ajusco.
Overall precipitation is heavily concentrated in the summer months, and includes dense hail. Snow falls in the city very rarely, although somewhat more often in nearby mountain tops.
Throughout its history, the Central Valley of Mexico was accustomed to having several snowfalls per decade including a period between and in which every single year—except —recorded snowfalls  mostly lake-effect snow.
The effects of the draining of Lake Texcoco and global warming have greatly reduced snowfalls after the snow flurries of 12 February The region of the Valley of Mexico receives anti-cyclonic systems.
The wet humid summer runs from May to October when winds bring in tropical moisture from the sea, the wettest month being July. The cool sunny winter runs from November to April, when the air is relatively drier, the driest month being December.
This season is subdivided into a cold winter period and a warm spring period. The cold period spans from November to February, when polar air masses push down from the north and keep the air fairly dry.
The warm period extends from March to May when subtropical winds again dominate but do not yet carry enough moisture for rain to form. Originally much of the valley lay beneath the waters of Lake Texcoco , a system of interconnected salt and freshwater lakes.
The Aztecs built dikes to separate the fresh water used to raise crops in chinampas and to prevent recurrent floods.
These dikes were destroyed during the siege of Tenochtitlan, and during colonial times the Spanish regularly drained the lake to prevent floods.
Only a small section of the original lake remains, located outside Mexico City, in the municipality of Atenco , State of Mexico.
If approved by the government the project will contribute to the supply of water from natural sources to the Valley of Mexico , the creation of new natural spaces, a great improvement in air quality, and greater population establishment planning.
By the s Mexico City had become infamous as one of the world's most polluted cities; however, the city has become a model for drastically lowering pollution levels.
By carbon monoxide pollution had dropped drastically, while levels of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were nearly three times lower than in The levels of signature pollutants in Mexico City are similar to those of Los Angeles.
To clean up pollution, the federal and local governments implemented numerous plans including the constant monitoring and reporting of environmental conditions, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides.
This location would then be appropriated as federal land, with the federal government acting as the local authority.
The choice was official on 18 November , and Congress delineated a surface area of two leagues square 8, acres centered on the Zocalo. This area was then separated from the State of Mexico , forcing that state's government to move from the Palace of the Inquisition now Museum of Mexican Medicine in the city to Texcoco.
The Mexican—American War had just been fought. By that time, the total number of municipalities within Mexico City was twenty-two.
While Mexico City was ruled by the federal government through an appointed governor, the municipalities within it were autonomous, and this duality of powers created tension between the municipalities and the federal government for more than a century.
Eventually, in December , the federal government decided to abolish all the municipalities of the Federal District. In place of the municipalities, the Federal District was divided into one "Central Department" and 13 delegaciones boroughs administered directly by the government of the Federal District.
In , the General Anaya borough was merged with the Central Department, which was then renamed "Mexico City" thus reviving the name but not the autonomous municipality.
From to , the Federal District comprised twelve delegaciones and Mexico City. Since then, the whole Federal District, whose delegaciones had by then almost formed a single urban area, began to be considered de facto a synonym of Mexico City.
The lack of a de jure stipulation left a legal vacuum that led to a number of sterile discussions about whether one concept had engulfed the other or if the latter had ceased to exist altogether.
In , the situation was solved by an amendment to the 44th article of the Constitution of Mexico ; Mexico City and the Federal District were stated to be the same entity.
The amendment was later introduced into the second article of the Statute of Government of the Federal District.
It will have its own constitution and its legislature, and its delegaciones will now be headed by mayors. Mexico City, being the seat of the powers of the Union, belongs not to any particular state but to all of them.
Therefore, the president, representing the federation, used to designate the head of government of the national capital today the head of the government of Mexico City , sometimes called outside Mexico as the "Mayor" of Mexico City.
In response to the demands, Mexico City received a greater degree of autonomy, with the elaboration the first Statute of Government Estatuto de Gobierno and the creation of an assembly of representatives.
He resigned in to run in the presidential elections and designated Rosario Robles to succeed him, who became the first woman, elected or otherwise, to govern Mexico City.
In , Marcelo Ebrard was elected to serve until The city has a Statute of Government, and as of its ratification on 31 January , a constitution ,   similar to the states of the Union.
As part of the recent changes in autonomy, the budget is administered locally; it is proposed by the head of government and approved by the Legislative Assembly.
Nonetheless, it is the Congress of the Union that sets the ceiling to internal and external public debt issued by the city government.
According to the 44th article of the Mexican Constitution, if the powers of the Union move to another city, Mexico City would become a new state, the "State of the Valley of Mexico", with the new limits set by the Congress of the Union.
In , elections were held for the post of head of government and the representatives of the Legislative Assembly. Heads of government are elected for a six-year period without the possibility of re-election.
Traditionally, the position has been considered as the second most important executive office in the country. The Legislative Assembly of Mexico City is formed, as it is the case for state legislatures in Mexico, by both single-seat and proportional seats, making it a system of parallel voting.
Mexico City is divided into 40 electoral constituencies of similar population which elect one representative by the plurality voting system , locally called "uninominal deputies".
Mexico City, as a whole, is a single constituency for the parallel election of 26 representatives, elected by proportional representation , with open-party lists, locally called "plurinominal deputies".
Even though proportionality is supposed to prevent a party from being overrepresented, several restrictions apply in the assignation of the seats.
In the elections, the PRD got the absolute majority in the direct uninominal elections, securing 34 of the 40 FPP seats.
As such, the PRD was not assigned any plurinominal seat to comply with the law that prevents over-representation. The overall composition of the Legislative Assembly is:.
The politics pursued by the administrations of heads of government in Mexico City since the second half of the 20th century have usually been more liberal than those of the rest of the country, whether with the support of the federal government, as was the case with the approval of several comprehensive environmental laws in the s, or by laws that were since approved by the Legislative Assembly.
The Legislative Assembly expanded provisions on abortions, becoming the first federal entity to expand abortion in Mexico beyond cases of rape and economic reasons, to permit it at the choice of the mother before the 12th week of pregnancy.
For administrative purposes, the city is divided into 16 alcadias , or councils formerly delegaciones. While they are not fully equivalent to municipalities, the boroughs have gained significant autonomy, and since , their heads of government have been elected directly by plurality they had been appointed by the Head of Government.
Since Mexico City is organized entirely as a Federal District, most of the city services are provided or organized by the city government, not by the boroughs themselves; in the constituent states , such services would be provided by the municipalities.
The boroughs of Mexico City with their populations are: . Azcapotzalco pop. Cuajimalpa pop. Gustavo A. Madero pop.
Iztacalco pop. Iztapalapa pop. Magdalena Contreras pop. Miguel Hidalgo pop. Milpa Alta pop. Tlalpan pop. Venustiano Carranza pop. Xochimilco pop.
The boroughs are composed of hundreds of colonias , or neighborhoods , which have no jurisdictional autonomy or representation.
Other well-known central neighborhoods include Condesa , known for its Art Deco architecture and its restaurant scene; Colonia Roma , a beaux arts neighborhood and artistic and culinary hot-spot, the Zona Rosa , formerly the center of nightlife and restaurants, now reborn as the center of the LGBT and Korean-Mexican communities; and Tepito and La Lagunilla , known for their local working-class folklore and large flea markets.
Nevertheless, some areas of lower-income colonias are right next to rich neighborhoods, particularly in the case of Santa Fe.
Urban sprawl continues further east for many miles into the State of Mexico, including Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl , now increasingly middle class but once full of informal settlements.
Such slums are still found on the eastern edges of the metropolitan area in the Chalco area. Madero have important industrial centers and neighborhoods that range from established middle-class colonias such as Claveria and Lindavista to huge low-income housing areas that share hillsides with adjacent municipalities in the State of Mexico.
In recent years, much of northern Mexico City's industry has moved to nearby municipalities in the State of Mexico. Mexico City's HDI for the report was 0.
Greater Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in Mexico and the area with the highest population density. As of [update] , 21,, people live in this urban agglomeration, of which 8,, live in Mexico City proper.
The above municipalities are located in the state of Mexico but are part of the Greater Mexico City area. Greater Mexico City was the fastest growing metropolitan area in the country until the late s.
Since then, and through a policy of decentralization in order to reduce the environmental pollutants of the growing conurbation, the annual rate of growth of the agglomeration has decreased, and it is lower than that of the other four largest metropolitan areas namely Greater Guadalajara , Greater Monterrey , Greater Puebla and Greater Toluca even though it is still positive.
The net migration rate of Mexico City proper from to was negative,  which implies that residents are moving to the suburbs of the metropolitan area, or to other states of Mexico.
In addition, some inner suburbs are losing population to outer suburbs, indicating the continuing expansion of Greater Mexico City.
The historic district is also roamed by tourist police, aiming to orient and serve tourists. These horse-mounted agents dress in traditional uniforms.
Between and an average of crimes were reported each day in Mexico City; however, the actual crime rate is thought to be much higher "since most people are reluctant to report crime".
Some of the policies enacted included the installation of 11, security cameras around the city and a very large expansion of the police force.
Mexico City has one of the world's highest police officer-to-resident ratios, with one uniformed officer per citizens. He sees punishment "related to the growing politicisation of security and crime issues and the resulting criminalisation of the people living at the margins of urban society, in particular those who work in the city's informal economy.
In , the incidence of femicides was 3. Annually the Metro of Mexico City receives complaints of sexual harassment. While the violence against women in Mexico City is rising, there is still a large number of incidents of kidnappings and killings that go undetected and unreported due to the corruption in the police department.
The World Bank has sponsored a project to curb air pollution through public transport improvements and the Mexican government has started shutting down polluting factories.
They have phased out diesel buses and mandated new emission controls on new cars; since all new cars must be fitted with a catalytic converter , which reduces the emissions released.
Trucks must use only liquefied petroleum gas LPG. Also construction of an underground rail system was begun in in order to help curb air pollution problems and alleviate traffic congestion.
Fees are kept low to encourage use of the system and during rush hours the crush is so great, that authorities have reserved a special carriage specifically for women.
Due to these initiatives and others, the air quality in Mexico City has begun to improve; it is cleaner than it was in , when the air quality was declared to be a public health risk for days of the year.
Mexico City is one of the most important economic hubs in Latin America. The city proper produces Due to the limited non-urbanized space at the south—most of which is protected through environmental laws—the contribution of Mexico City in agriculture is the smallest of all federal entities in the country.
The high spending power of Mexico City inhabitants makes the city attractive for companies offering prestige and luxury goods.
The economic reforms of President Carlos Salinas de Gortari had a tremendous effect on the city, as a number of businesses, including banks and airlines, were privatized.
This led to decentralization  and a shift in Mexico City's economic base, from manufacturing to services, as most factories moved away to either the State of Mexico , or more commonly to the northern border.
By contrast, corporate office buildings set their base in the city. Historically, and since Pre-Columbian times, the Valley of Anahuac has been one of the most densely populated areas in Mexico.
According to the census, Up to the s, the Federal District was the most populous federal entity in Mexico, but since then, its population has remained stable at around 8.
The growth of the city has extended beyond the limits of the city to 59 municipalities of the State of Mexico and 1 in the state of Hidalgo.
Nonetheless, the annual rate of growth of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City is much lower than that of other large urban agglomerations in Mexico,  a phenomenon most likely attributable to the environmental policy of decentralization.
The net migration rate of Mexico City from to was negative. Representing around Nahuatl , Otomi , Mixtec , Zapotec and Mazahua are the indigenous languages with the greatest number of speakers in Mexico City.
Mexico City is also home to large communities of expatriates and immigrants from the rest of North America U. While no official figures have been reported, population estimates of each of these communities are quite significant.
Mexico City is home to the largest population of U. Americans living outside the United States. Estimates are as high as , U.
Americans living in Mexico City, while in the U. There are also growing [ citation needed ] numbers of irreligious people, whether agnostic or atheist.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mexico is the largest archdiocese in the world. Mexico City is a destination for many foreign tourists.
The Templo Mayor was discovered in while workers were digging to place underground electric cables.
This avenue was designed over the Americas' oldest known major roadway in the 19th century to connect the National Palace seat of government with the Castle of Chapultepec , the imperial residence.
Today, this avenue is an important financial district in which the Mexican Stock Exchange and several corporate headquarters are located.
Another important avenue is the Avenida de los Insurgentes , which extends Chapultepec Park houses the Chapultepec Castle , now a museum on a hill that overlooks the park and its numerous museums, monuments and the national zoo and the National Museum of Anthropology which houses the Aztec Calendar Stone.
The Plaza de las Tres Culturas , in this square are located the College of Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco , that is the first and oldest European school of higher learning in the Americas ,  and the archaeological site of the city-state of Tlatelolco , and the shrine and Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe are also important sites.
There is a double-decker bus , known as the "Turibus", that circles most of these sites, and has timed audio describing the sites in multiple languages as they are passed.
In addition, according to the Secretariat of Tourism, the city has about museums —is among the top ten of cities in the world with highest number of museums   —over art galleries , and some 30 concert halls , all of which maintain a constant cultural activity during the whole year.
It has either the third or fourth-highest number of theatres in the world after New York, London and perhaps Toronto.
Many areas e. Having been capital of a vast pre-Hispanic empire, and also the capital of richest viceroyalty within the Spanish Empire ruling over a vast territory in the Americas and Spanish West Indies , and, finally, the capital of the United Mexican States, Mexico City has a rich history of artistic expression.
Since the mesoamerican pre-Classical period the inhabitants of the settlements around Lake Texcoco produced many works of art and complex craftsmanship, some of which are today displayed at the world-renowned National Museum of Anthropology and the Templo Mayor museum.
While many pieces of pottery and stone-engraving have survived, the great majority of the Amerindian iconography was destroyed during the Conquest of Mexico.
Much of the early colonial art stemmed from the codices Aztec illustrated books , aiming to recover and preserve some Aztec and other Amerindian iconography and history.
From then, artistic expressions in Mexico were mostly religious in theme. The Metropolitan Cathedral still displays works by Juan de Rojas , Juan Correa and an oil painting whose authorship has been attributed to Murillo.
Many of the works produced by the students and faculty of that time are now displayed in the Museo Nacional de San Carlos National Museum of San Carlos.
Popular arts in the form of cartoons and illustrations flourished, e. After the Mexican Revolution , an avant-garde artistic movement originated in Mexico City: muralism.
Frida Kahlo , wife of Rivera, with a strong nationalist expression, was also one of the most renowned of Mexican painters. Her house has become a museum that displays many of her works.
The former home of Rivera muse Dolores Olmedo houses the namesake museum. The facility is in Xochimilco borough in southern Mexico City and includes several buildings surrounded by sprawling manicured lawns.
It houses a large collection of Rivera and Kahlo paintings and drawings, as well as living Xoloizcuintles Mexican Hairless Dog. It also regularly hosts small but important temporary exhibits of classical and modern art e.
Venetian Masters and Contemporary New York artists. Other painters came from abroad, such as Catalan painter Remedios Varo and other Spanish and Jewish exiles.
It was in the second half of the 20th century that the artistic movement began to drift apart from the Revolutionary theme.
Mexico City has numerous museums dedicated to art, including Mexican colonial, modern and contemporary art , and international art.
The Museo Tamayo was opened in the mids to house the collection of international contemporary art donated by famed Mexican born in the state of Oaxaca painter Rufino Tamayo.
The collection includes pieces by Picasso, Klee, Kandinsky, Warhol and many others, though most of the collection is stored while visiting exhibits are shown.
The Museo de Arte Moderno Museum of Modern Art is a repository of Mexican artists from the 20th century, including Rivera, Orozco, Siqueiros, Kahlo, Gerzso , Carrington, Tamayo, among others, and also regularly hosts temporary exhibits of international modern art.
The Museo Soumaya , named after the wife of Mexican magnate Carlos Slim , has the largest private collection of original Rodin sculptures outside Paris.
The museum inaugurated a new futuristic-design facility in just north of Polanco, while maintaining a smaller facility in Plaza de Loreto in southern Mexico City.
It is said to have the largest private contemporary art collection in Latin America and hosts pieces from its permanent collection as well as traveling exhibits by leading contemporary artists.
The Museo de San Ildefonso, housed in the Antiguo Colegio de San Ildefonso in Mexico City's historic downtown district is a 17th-century colonnaded palace housing an art museum that regularly hosts world-class exhibits of Mexican and international art.
It houses a large collection of pieces by all major Mexican artists of the last years and also hosts visiting exhibits.
Jack Kerouac , the noted American author, spent extended periods of time in the city, and wrote his masterpiece volume of poetry Mexico City Blues here.
Another American author, William S. Burroughs , also lived in the Colonia Roma neighborhood of the city for some time. It was here that he accidentally shot his wife.
In addition to this, entrance to most museums are free on Sunday. In some cases a modest fee may be charged.
Another major addition to the city's museum scene is the Museum of Remembrance and Tolerance Museo de la Memoria y Tolerancia , inaugurated in early The brainchild of two young Mexican women as a Holocaust museum, the idea morphed into a unique museum dedicated to showcasing all major historical events of discrimination and genocide.
Permanent exhibits include those on the Holocaust and other large-scale atrocities. It also houses temporary exhibits; one on Tibet was inaugurated by the Dalai Lama in September Mexico City is home to a number of orchestras offering season programs.
The city is also a leading center of popular culture and music. There are a multitude of venues hosting Spanish and foreign-language performers.
These include the 10,seat National Auditorium that regularly schedules the Spanish and English-language pop and rock artists, as well as many of the world's leading performing arts ensembles, the auditorium also broadcasts grand opera performances from New York's Metropolitan Opera on giant, high definition screens.
In National Auditorium was selected world's best venue by multiple genre media. Other sites for pop-artist performances include the 3,seat Teatro Metropolitan , the 15,seat Palacio de los Deportes , and the larger 50,seat Foro Sol Stadium, where popular international artists perform on a regular basis.
There are numerous venues for smaller musical ensembles and solo performers. Mexico City has a number of IMAX theatres, providing residents and visitors access to films ranging from documentaries to blockbusters on these large screens.
Once considered plebeian fare, by the 19th century tacos had become a standard of Mexico City's cuisine. As authorities struggled to tax local taquerias , imposing licensing requirements and penalties, they recorded some details of the types of foods being served by these establishments.
The most frequent reference was for tacos de barbacoa. Also mentioned are enchiladas , tacos de minero and gorditas , along with oyster shops and fried fish stands.
There is evidence of some regional specialties being made available for recent migrants; at least two shops were known to serve pozole , a type of stew similar to hominy that is a staple of Guadalajara , Jalisco.
Mexico City is known for having some of the freshest fish and seafood in Mexico's interior. La Nueva Viga Market is the second largest seafood market in the world after the Tsukiji fish market in Japan.
Mexico City offers a variety of cuisines: restaurants specializing in the regional cuisines of Mexico's 31 states are available in the city, and the city also has several branches of internationally recognized restaurants.
Also notable is the Basque-Mexican fusion restaurant Biko run and co-owned by Bruno Oteiza and Mikel Alonso , which placed outside the list at 59th, but in previous years has ranked within the top Mexico City has many modes of public transportation, from the metro subway system, to suburban rail, light rail, regular buses, BRT bus rapid transit , 'pesero' minibuses, and trolleybuses, to bike share.
Mexico City is served by the Sistema de Transporte Colectivo , a The first portions were opened in and it has expanded to 12 lines with stations.
The metro transports 4. It is the 8th busiest metro system in the world, behind Tokyo Several stations display pre-Columbian artifacts and architecture that were discovered during the metro's construction.
The Metro stations are also differentiated by the use of icons and glyphs which were created for the illiterate, a unique system that has become iconic characteristic of Mexico City.
Each icon was developed based on historical characters, sites, pre-Hispanic motifs , linguistic, symbolic glyphs or geographic references. Chalco and La Paz.
As of [update] , the approximately 28, peseros carried up to 60 percent of the city's passengers. In , the city launched so-called "Bus Rapid Service", with mid-sized Mercedes-Benz Boxer buses carrying 75—85 passengers   painted purple-on-white, replacing 'peseros' on certain groups of routes.
More and more lines opened and as of mid there are 6 routes with a 7th planned along Paseo de la Reforma to connect Santa Fe with the city center and points north.
In late they transported an average of 1. In the late s many arterial roads were redesigned as ejes viales ; high-volume one-way roads that cross, in theory, Mexico City proper from side to side.
The eje vial network is based on a quasi- Cartesian grid, with the ejes themselves being called Eje 1 Poniente , Eje Central , and Eje 1 Oriente , for example, for the north—south roads, and Eje 2 Sur and Eje 3 Norte , for example, for east—west roads.
There is an environmental program, called Hoy No Circula "Today Does Not Run", or "One Day without a Car" , whereby vehicles that have not passed emissions testing are restricted from circulating on certain days according to the ending digit of their license plates ; this in an attempt to cut down on pollution and traffic congestion.
Street parking in urban neighborhoods is mostly controlled by the franeleros a. Double parking is common with franeleros moving the cars as required , impeding on the available lanes for traffic to pass.
In order to mitigate that and other problems and to raise revenue,  parking meters as of October , have been installed in the west-central neighborhoods Lomas de Chapultepec , Condesa , Roma , Polanco and Anzures , in operation from 8 AM to 8 PM on weekdays and charging a rate of 2 pesos per 15 minutes, with offenders' cars booted, costing about pesos to remove.
The granting of the license for all zones exclusively to a new company without experience in operating parking meters, Operadora de Estacionamientos Bicentenario, has generated controversy.
The local government continuously strives for a reduction of massive traffic congestion, and has increased incentives for making a bicycle-friendly city.
There are, as of September , stations with 4, bicycles across an area stretching from the Historic center to Polanco. The city has four major bus stations North, South, Observatorio, TAPO , which comprise one of the world's largest transportation agglomerations, with bus service to many cities across the country and international connections.
There are some intercity buses that leave directly from the Mexico City International Airport. The airport is also a hub for Volaris , Interjet and Aeromar.
An alternate option is Lic. The city of Pachuca will also provide additional expansion to central Mexico's airport network. In the Plaza de las Tres Culturas is the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco that is recognized for being the first and oldest European school of higher learning in the Americas  and the first major school of interpreters and translators in the New World.
Three Nobel laureates , several Mexican entrepreneurs and most of Mexico's modern-day presidents are among its former students. In addition, the prestigious University of California maintains a campus known as "Casa de California" in the city.
Unlike those of Mexican states' schools, curricula of Mexico City's public schools is managed by the federal Secretary of Public Education. Members are obligated to publicly disclose their works through conferences and public events such as concerts and recitals.Natürlich muss man Browser Spiele Kostenlos im Hinterkopf behalten: Diese Schwellenländer sind bevölkerungsreicher als die Spiele Mmorpg Staaten, die absoluten Krombacher Spiel können darum auch höher sein. Und darüber, ob ihn die Regierung tatsächlich richtig genutzt habe, weil sie es nicht geschafft habe, dass die Kurve der Infizierten während des Lockdowns abgeflacht sei. Er möchte zur Normalität zurückkehren und die Wirtschaft wieder öffnen. Bitte geben Sie einen Spitznamen ein. Im Umfeld des Rio+20 Gipfels, der vom Juni in Rio de Janeiro stattfand, rückten Brasilien und Mexiko als größte Verursacher von. Mexiko, Brasilien, Argentinien: Aspekte eines Vergleichs*. 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