The first uniform skat rules were instituted in On January 1,, after two years of negotiations, the Deutscher Skatverband (DSkV) and. No Wi-Fi required, play anywhere; Latest HD graphics and card physics; Free Skat trainer to practice your skills; Learn the authentic Skat rules; Challenge. Many translated example sentences containing "Skat" – English-German dictionary and search engine for English translations.
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R must increase their bids as the junior, to which F or M must match. Whoever does not pass becomes the declarer , or the winner of the bid.
The declarer has the right to pick up the two skat cards. Add them to hand and discard two unwanted cards face-down.
After discarding, the declarer chooses their game. There are seven options:. Declarers in suit hand games and grand hand games can up the stakes by increasing the point value of a game.
This must be announced before the first trick. Play moves clockwise. The forehand always leads the first trick and player should try to follow suit if possible.
If a player is unable to follow suit they may play any card. Reminder, in suit and grand games jacks are trumps despite suit. For example, if the suit lead with is diamonds, jack of clubs is still the highest trump.
The player does not take the Skat in hand. Gusker: the player picks up the Skat cards without showing them and discards any other two cards face down.
Play proceeds with only the Jacks as trumps. Nullo: Is a contract to lose all tricks without looking at the Skat.
The hand is played without a trump suit. Ouvert: The player exposes their entire hand before the opening lead, contracting either to win all tricks with Jacks as trumps — Grand Ouvert — or to lose all tricks — Null Ouvert.
Ramsch: Played only when all three players pass without bidding, and the Leader must play the hand. With only Jacks as trumps, each player tries to win as few tricks as they can.
Skat cards are not used in play and at the end of the hand, go to whoever won the last trick. The Leader makes the opening lead, and thereafter the winner of the trick leads to the next.
This achievement multiplies his score. Except at Nullo, failure to win a trick incurs the penalty of Schwartz. Except when playing Nullo or Ramsch, the score for a fulfilled contract is arrived at by a Adding together the applicable multipliers b And then multiplying the basic game value by that number.
In Nullo, no multipliers are used. In Ramsch, the player taking the fewest tricks scores 10 points. If a player takes all tricks at Ramsch, they lose 30 points.
A player who fulfils their declaration and the full value of their game equals or exceeds their bid, they score the value of their actual game, which may be higher than what was bid, plus any multipliers that may apply.
Note that it is the score that is doubled, not the value of the contract. For example suppose I bid up to 20, look at the skat, and play in diamonds.
I am only with one matador, but am hoping to make the opponents schneider. One of the opponents says Kontra, and in the play I win 85 card points.
As I am with 1, the game value is 18, so I have overbid the Kontra does not affect this. So I lose based on the lowest multiple of diamonds which would have been sufficient, namely I lose double because I looked at the skat and the score is doubled again for the Kontra, so I lose game points altogether.
There is some variation as to when Kontra and Rekontra can be said. Some play that Kontra can only be said before the first lead and a declarer who is Forehand must wait before leading to give the opponents an opportunity to Kontra.
A variation occasionally met with is that you are not allowed to Kontra if you passed an opportunity to bid 18 or say yes to A will not now be allowed to kontra B 's contract, because A failed to say yes to B 's 18 bid.
On the other hand, C can Kontra, because C would have had to say at least 20 to enter the bidding - C never had an opportunity to bid The thinking behind this variation is that a player with a good hand should bid - they should not be allowed to pass and lie in wait, ready to Kontra another player.
This is also very widely played. If Middlehand and Rearhand pass, and Forehand also does not want to play a contract, the cards are not thrown in, but a game of Ramsch is played.
Ramsch can be thought of as a punishment for a player who does not bid with good cards. The rank and value of the cards is the same as in Grand, but the object is to avoid taking card points.
Players keep their tricks individually, and whoever takes the most card points loses. There are many varieties of Ramsch. The players need to agree in advance on the following rules:.
If you like playing Ramsch, it is possible to play it as a game in its own right. That is, you just play Ramsch on every hand.
See the Schieberamsch page for a description of how this works. A Bockround is a round i. Note that this doubling only affects the final scores on the scoresheet; the bids and game values are unaffected.
It is usual to play a Bockround after some special event; the events which cause a Bockround should be agreed before the game.
Possibilities are:. Note that if you have too many of these, you will end up playing for double score all the time, and you might as well have just agreed to double the stake and not have bothered with the Bockrounds.
Some people like to play a round of compulsory Ramsch after each Bockround, or after every third Bockround. Ramschrounds are played according to the rules of Schieberamsch , including the possibility of playing Grand Hand.
A Ramschround consists of as many hands of Ramsch as there are players; a Grand Hand does not count towards completing the Ramschround, and after a Grand Hand the same player deals again.
If the opponents decide at the start of the play that they cannot defeat the declarer, they can give up schenken. If the declarer accepts, the score is as though the game was won simply i.
The declarer can insist on playing on, but in that case has to make the opponents Schneider to win. The score in this case is as for an announced Schneider but without the hand multiplier if it is not a hand game.
If the declarer goes on the opponents can schenken again, giving the declarer the Schneider. The declarer can accept Schneider or insist on playing on for Schwarz.
The normal way of giving up is for one opponent to say "schenken". The other then either agrees, in which case they are offering to give up, or disagrees, in which case play continues as though nothing had happened.
There are some tricky ethical problems about this variation for which as far as I know there are no standard answers , for example:.
Some people play that if the bid is 18 and the contract is diamonds, or the bid is 20 and the contract is diamonds or hearts, then the hand is automatically conceded by the opponents and won simply by the declarer, unless the opponents Kontra or the declarer makes some additional announcement such as open or Spitze.
This is an announcement that the declarer will win the last trick with the lowest trump - the 7 in a suit contract or the jack of diamonds in a Grand.
It is announced verbally, or by reversing the card in your hand so that the face is visible to the opponents. Spitze increases the value of your game by one multiplier.
In order to win, you have to win the last trick with the lowest trump in addition to taking 61 or more card points. If you fail in either, you lose.
You can announce more than one Spitze - in fact you can produce any unbroken sequence of trumps including the lowest and contract to win an unbroken series of tricks with them at the end of the hand.
This is worth one extra multiplier per card - for example contracting to win the last 3 tricks with the of trumps is worth 3 extra multipliers.
These changes seem to have been swiftly adopted by Skat clubs in Germany, but the older rules may well still be found, especially in private games.
The main description on this page now follows the new rules. The differences in the older rules were as follows. Some people play that declarer's cards are not exposed until after the first lead, or after the first trick.
Some people allow the declarer to play any contract open, adding an extra multiplier to the game value. After putting two cards back into the Skat , declarer then either declares a suit game by announcing a trump suit, declares a grand game or a null game.
If Hand has been declared, the player may make additional announcements such as Schneider , Schwarz and Ouvert.
A common variant in non-sanctioned play allows the defenders to announce " Kontra " just before the first trick is played, if they have made or held at least one call.
In this case, the stakes will be doubled for the hand. In a less common further variation this process can be repeated twice more by announcing " Supra " and " Resupra " or more colloquially, " Bock " [ roe buck] and " Hirsch " [red deer] , or the like, which are colloquial augments of " Reh " roe deer.
The player in the first seat sitting to the left of the dealer leads to the first trick. The other two follow in clockwise direction.
Every player plays one card to the trick, which is in the middle of the table. The winner of a trick stacks the cards face down in front of him and leads to the next trick, which is again played clockwise.
Completed tricks are kept face down in front of the players who won them, until all the cards have been played. Examining completed tricks except for the last one is not allowed.
The tricks of the two players who are playing together are put together, either during or after play. If a player cannot follow suit, he may play any card including a trump card.
Trumps, including all four jacks, count as a single suit. If a trump is led, every player must also play trump, if he has any.
If there are trump cards in the trick, the highest trump in it wins the trick. If there are no trumps in it, the highest card of the suit led wins the trick.
The non-trump suit cards rank in order AK-Q In the grand game, only the four jacks are trumps in the suit order given above for a regular suit game.
All other ranks are the same as in the regular suit game 10 is ranked just below the ace. There are thus five "suits" in the grand game if a jack is led to a trick, the other two players must play jacks too, if they have them.
The goal of a null game is for declarer not to take any tricks. If declarer takes a trick in a null game, he immediately loses and the game is scored right away.
Declarer may, unilaterally, concede a loss while he is holding at least nine cards i. Afterwards approval of at least one defender is required.
Defenders may concede at any time, but may be requested by declarer to complete the play e. Claiming of remaining tricks is possible as well, but for a defender only if she would be able to take the remaining tricks herself.
After the last trick has been played, the game is scored. Winning conditions for null game are different from suit and grand games. To win a suit or grand game, declarer needs at least 61 card points in his tricks.
If declarer announced Schneider , he needs at least 90 card points in order to win. The two cards in the Skat count towards declarer's tricks.
If declarer announced Schwarz , he must take all ten tricks in order to win. The highest-ranking cards for taking the tricks the jacks are not the highest scoring cards.
The aces and 10s combined make up almost three quarters of the total points; taking as many as possible of them is thus imperative for winning.
On the other hand, taking 7s, 8s and 9s the Luschen or blanks doesn't help or hurt at all, unless Schwarz was declared. To win a null game, declarer must not take a single trick.
There are no card points in a null game. Even with the majority in card points, declarer may still lose if the game value is lower than the value he bid during the bidding.
This is called overbidding. An overbid hand is automatically lost, leading to a negative score for declarer. An overbid hand is scored by determining the lowest possible game value that is a multiple of the base value of declarer's suit or 24 in case of a grand which is at least as high as declarer's bid.
This value is then doubled and subtracted from declarer's score negative score. Unless they manage to play at least Schneider raising the game value to 36 , or make a game other than clubs with a game value of at least 30, the game will be lost.
They can try to minimize their loss by declaring a game in Hearts instead of Clubs base value 10 instead of The score is always assigned to the declarer positive or negative in the classical scoring system.
The score to be awarded is the actual game value. How high the player bid during the bidding is immaterial, as long as the game value is at least as high as declarer's bid see Overbid Hands above.
Note that often the score will be higher than the bidding value, because players typically do not bid as high as their hand would allow. For a won game, that score is added to declarer's tally.
For a lost game, the score is doubled and subtracted from declarer's tally negative score. Until , lost Hand games did not count double, but this rule was dropped in that year.
The reason was that in tournament play nearly all games played were Hand games. This increased the game level by one, but did not penalize as much as a normal game would have if lost.
In league games, 50 points get added for each game that is won by the declarer and 40 points each get added to the tally of the defending team shall they win to lower the chance factor and to stress the skill factor.
In that situation, it becomes far more important for each player to bid his hand as high as possible. Example 1: Declarer bids 20 and declares a grand game.
He then wins with 78 points in tricks. These are awarded to the declarer. Example 2: Declarer bids 30 and declares a Null Ouvert game.
She, however, is forced to take the ninth trick, losing the game.